fourth and final region of stomach in Ruminantia.
small invagination in the abdomen of Old World carpenter bees providing
protection for symbiotic mites.
seen only in Odonata on sternites of second and third abdominal segments.
Acetylcholine: an acetyl ester of choline involved
in the synaptic transmission between nerve cells.
enzyme within the synaptic
gap that hydrolyses acetylcholine to choline and acetic acid.
pointed, needle shaped.
flexible setae fringed nozzle in
short-horned grasshoppers Orthoptera
the two rows of setae which
are seen lying on either side of the thorax in diptera.
Active immunity: resistance to a disease acquired
by an animal as the result of antibody production in response to antigens.
Aculeate: to possess a sting-hymenoptera.
Acuminate: tapering down to a point.
Adeagus: the inserted part of the male genitalia
in copulation carrying the sperm into the female.
arthropods having non-articulated,
often reduced mandibles.
intermittent organ of males of most
insect groups, often used for identification.
dormancy in hot dry conditions
analogous to hibernation in cold environments.
central or middle of the three
outgrowths seen at the base of wings in various flies.
thorax and propodeum of narrow waisted
Alula: outer of the three outgrowths seen at the
base of wings in various flies.
Annulate: with ring-like markings.
Antennae: sensory organs on the head-usually
in dragonfly or damselfly wings,
the small cross-veins between the base and the nodus.
order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera,
soft bodied insects feeding on plant sap, greenfly, blackfly.
concerning the tip.
order Hymenoptera, ants bees, wasps.
Apodeme: internal projection of cuticle for the
attachment of muscles in insects.
a Color form or behavior which
serves as a warning of distaste or danger, such as the yellow and black of a
organ or limb attached to the body by a
short vein, especially that seen as a
short continuation after a main vein has changed direction.
Any of the primitive insects which
have never developed wings during their history- bristletails.
living in water.
order Hemiptera, barkbugs, most feed on
fungi under the bark of dead trees.
term applied to a virus that can replicate in both arthropods
division of an area into smaller areas-areolae-by lines or cracks
such as a insects wing.
bristle-like outgrowths from the third antennal segment of some diptera.
Aristate: bearing an arista- Tsetse flies.
Arolium: pad found between the claws on an insects foot.
Arthropoda: a major
division within the Animal Kingdom having external
general name of bugs belonging to the family Reduviidae.
Attini: foliage cutting ants which feed on fungi grown on cut foliage,
Bacterium: Bacteria in the blood.
Bacilluria: Having bacteria in the urine.
Bacteriostatic: preventing the growth of bacteria.
Basal Lamina : one of two layers that form the basement membrane, a
amorphous sheet which underlies epithelial cells.
Basal: the base of a structure-usually that nearest to the body.
Basitarsus: first and usually the largest segment of the tarsus.
Bedbug: Cimex lectularius.
Bee-flies: common name for Bombyliidae.
Bibionidae: fever flies, March flies. Order Diptera.
Bifid: split in two.
Biological Control: control of pest species by the use of other living
Bipectinate: concerned mainly with the antennae-feathery like extensions
projecting out from two sides of a central axis.
Biting Lice: Mallophaga.
Biting Midges: Ceratopogonidae.
Blister beetle: Meloidae.
Bombyliidae: bee-flies, order Diptera, suborder-Brachycera.
Bot Fly: common name for Gasterophilidae and Oestridae.
Brachypterous: to have short wings.
Buccal: pertaining to the mouth.
Buffalo Gnats: common name for blackflies, Simuliidae.
Bugs: common term for Hemiptera.
Bulb: rounded expansion of an organ.
Bursa Copulatrix: part of female genitalia which receives sperm and the
adeagus, used as an identifying structure.
Byrrhidae: pill beetles, order Coleoptera.
Byssoid: to consist of fine threads.
Caddis Flies: order Trichoptera.
Cecum: a pouch in which in some animals houses a bacterial population
which is involved in the digestion of cellulose.
Calliphoridae: a suborder of Dipteran flies- blowflies such as
greenbottles and bluebottles.
Callus: rounded swelling used especially to describe swollen regions at
the front and back of certain diptera.
Calopterygidae: family of damselflies.
Calypter: also known as the thoracic squama, the inner most of three
outgrowths at the base of the wing in certain diptera.
Campanulate: bell shaped.
Campodeiform: concerning larva-elongated, flattened with developed legs
and antennae, seen in many beetles.
Cantharidae: family of soft-bodied beetles-soldier beetles and sailor
Capillary: smallest, narrowest blood vessel in the blood circulatory
system of a vertebrate.
Carabidae: major family of beetles-ground beetles.
Cardo: secondary jaw, comprised from basal segment of the maxilla.
Carina: a pronounced ridge.
Caste: one of the distinct forms that make up the population of social
insects, in honeybees-queen, drone, worker.
Catabolism: degradation of food molecules that results in energy.
Cauda: terminal protrusion, such as that on aphid for manipulating
Caudal: concerning the tail end.
Cell: area of wing formed by wing veination.
Cerci: paired appendages, usually long arising from the end of the abdomen.
Cervical: just behind the head, concerning the neck.
Chaetae: stiff hairs, singular-chaeta.
Chaetotaxy: arrangement of chaetae, important in classification especially
Chitin: polysaccharide material, tough relatively waterproof, forms bulk
of insect cuticle.
Ciliated: bearing minute setae, hairs in many non-insects.
Clavate: distal end being swollen, club-shaped, usually referring to
Clavus: posterior wing region in heteroptera.
Clypeus: part of an insects face just above the labrum.
Coarctate: concerning pupae-enclosed in last larval skin protecting pupa,
seen in Cyclorrapha flies.
Cocoon: silken case protecting pupa, seen in many Lepidoptera.
Contiguous: meeting or touching.
Corbicula: pollen basket on the hind leg of many bees.
Corium: main part of wing in heteropteran bug.
Cornicle: tubular outgrowths from the distal end of aphids, plural
Costa: one of the major wing veins forming the front margin of the wing,
abbreviated to C.
Costal cell: cell formed between the costal and sub-costal vein.
Coxa: basal leg segment, frequently fixed to body and immovable.
Cremaster: cluster of small hooks, less often one large hook, used to grip
pupal support in Lepidoptera pupa.
Cross-vein: any vein joining two longitudinal veins.
Cubitus: major longitudinal vein in the rear half of the wing, abbreviated
Cuneus: triangular region of forewing in some heteropteran bugs.
Cursorial: adapted for running.
Dentate: with teeth.
Denticulate: with small teeth like projections.
Diapause: suspended animation seen in many immature stages of insects.
Discal Cell: prominent often large cell near the center of the wing.
Dorsal: concerning the back-upper surface of an animal.
Dorso-central Bristles: two rows of setae running along either outer side
of the acrostichal bristles on the thorax of diptera.
Dorso-lateral: towards the dorsal surface.
Dorso-ventral: towards the ventral-lower-surface.
Dorsum: upper surface of an animal-the back.
Ecdysis: molting process in insects.
Ectoparasite: parasite which lives on the outside of its host-fleas and
lice are examples.
Elbowed Antenna: antennae with a distinct bend, or angle, between two
segments, usually the first and second.
Elytron: tough forewing of beetles and earwigs, plural elytra.
Emarginate: a distinct notch in the margin.
Embolium: narrow region along the margin of the forewing in certain
heteropteran bugs, separated by a groove.
Empodium: a either bristle-like or pad-like structure between the claws on
the feet of diptera.
Endoparasite: parasite that lives inside its host.
Endopterygote: insect in which wings develop inside the body of early
stages, total metamorphosis and a pupal stage are present.
Epimeron: posterior part of any side wall of the three thoracic segments.
Epipharynx: part of many insect mouth parts attached to the posterior
surface of the labrum.
Epiproct: appendage arising from midline of last abdominal segment, just
above the anus.
Episternum: anterior part of any of the three thoracic segments.
Eruciform: concerning larva-cylindrical with stumpy pseudopods at rear and
true thoracic legs at front-caterpillars.
Exarate Pupa: pupa with all appendages free.
Excavate: hollow seen in the coxa of many beetles, the coxa are hollow to
allow the housing of the femora when the legs are folded.
Exopterygote: insect in which the wings develop gradually outside the
body, incomplete metamorphosis and no pupal stage.
old cast off skin of an arthropod.
a covering over the eye formed from the base of the antennae,
seen in certain small moths.
Facet: surface of an ommatidium.
Femur: third segment of an insects leg, often the largest.
Filament: a thread like structure.
Filiform: thread like, applied to the antennae.
Flabellate: with projecting flaps on one side, applied usually to the
Flagellum: distal pert of antennae, beyond the second segment.
Fossorial: adapted for digging.
Frenulum: coupling mechanism of fore and hind wings in moths.
Frons: upper section of an insects face.
Frontal Bristles: two vertical rows of bristles on the face of a fly.
Frontal-orbital Bristles: short row of bristles on a fly's head between
the frontal bristles and the eye.
Furcula: forked spring of a springtail.
Galea: outer branch of the maxilla.
Gall: abnormal growth seen in plants due to an insect within its tissues,
commonly aphids, gall wasps and gall midges.
Gaster: abdomen in Hymenoptera except for the first segment which is fused
to the thorax.
Gena: part of an insects head below the eye, the cheek.
Genal comb: row of spines on the lower gena of certain fleas.
Geniculate: abruptly bent.
Genitalia: copulatory organs of an animal.
Genus: closely related species sharing certain features.
Gill: breathing organ of aquatic animals- in insects usually bodily
outgrowths infused with tracheae.
Glossa: one of a pair of lobes at the tip of labium, usually small, in
honeybee are greatly elongated and used to suck up nectar.
Gynandromorph: animal with a mixture of male and female characteristics.
Haltere: one of the balancing organs in dipteran
flies, these club shaped organs are the modified rear wings.
Hamuli: small hooks on the front edge of the hind wing to link it to the
fore wing in Hymenoptera.
Haustellate: organ for sucking liquids.
Hemelytron: forewing of a heteropteran bug, has a membranous tip.
Hemimetabolous: insect which has an incomplete metamorphic life cycle, no
Heteromerous: unequal numbers of tarsal segments on all legs.
Holometabolous: insect which has a complete metamorphic life cycle, with
Holoptic: eyes touching on top of head, seen mainly in diptera.
Homonym: two species which have been given the same scientific name, when
discovered one species has to be renamed.
Honeydew: sweet liquid extruded from the anus of aphids.
Host: organism either on which or in which one or more parasites are
Humeral Angle: front basal part of wing at the part close to its
attachment to the thorax.
Humeral vein: small cross vein in the humeral region of the wing running
from the costa to the sub-costa.
Hyaline: to be clear and colorless in structure.
Hypermetamorphosis: life cycle in which there can be two or more different
types of larvae.
Hyperparasite: an organism which is parasitic on a parasite.
Hypognathous: possessing a vertical head with mouthparts at the bottom.
Hypopharynx: part of an insects mouth parts arising behind the mouth and
in front of the labium.
Hypopleural Bristles: row of bristles which curve round on the side of the
thorax of some dipteran flies.
Imago: a adult insect.
Inquiline: animal that shares a home with a unrelated animal with no
apparent adverse effect on the animal.
Instar: insect stages seen between molts.
Integument: outer cuticle or epidermis of insect and helminthes.
Intercalary Vein: longitudinal vein arising from the wing margin inwards
but not connecting with any main veins.
Joint: an articulation between two parts.
Jugum: thin lobe projecting from the base of the forewing and overlapping
the hind wing linking the two together, seen in moths.
Keel: also called a carina- a narrow ridge.
Labellum: expanded tip of labium, seen in many dipteran
flies, used to soak up fluids.
Labial: pertaining to the labium.
Labium: lower lip of an insects mouth.
Labrium: upper lip of an insects mouth.
Lacinia: inner branch of the maxilla.
Lamella: thin plate like structure.
Lamellate: to possess lamellae often used in reference to antennae.
Larva: name for immature insect that are different to adults-maggot
differs from the adult fly.
Lateral: the sides.
Ligulae: the lobes at the tip of the labium.
Mandible: jaw of an insect, can be in many forms- drawn
out to a long hollow tube in mosquitoes or compact and toothed as in
Mandibulate: mandibles suited to biting and chewing.
Marginal Cell: a cell in the wing bordering the outer front margin.
Mazilla: one of two structures that lay behind the jaws in insects, plural
Maxillary: concerning the maxllae.
Media: longitudinal vein running through the central region of the wing in
most insects, abbreviated to M.
Membranous: thin delicate structure, usually transparent.
Mesonotum: dorsal surface of the second thoracic segment.
Mesopleuron: sclerites that comprise the side walls of the mesothorax.
Mesoscutellum: hindmost of the three divisions of the mesonotum, often
more or less triangular.
Mesoscutum: middle division of the mesonotum.
Mesosternum: ventral surface of the mesothoracic sclerite.
Mesothorax: second thoracic segment.
Metamorphosis: changes seen in an insect as it transforms from larvae to
Metanotum: dorsal surface of metathorax.
Metapleuron: sclerites comprising the side wall of metathorax.
Metatarsus: basal segment of tarsus or foot.
Metathorax: third segment of thorax.
Moniliform: concerning antennae-bead-like segments, each
Molt: to shed the outer covering of the body.
Nodus: kink or notch on the costal region of a
dragonfly wing, also used for the cross vein just behind the notch.
Notaulix: one of the longitudinal grooves on the mesonotum of certain
Notopleuron: triangular region in certain diptera behind the humeral
Notum: dorsal surface of any thoracic segment.
Nymph: young stages in hemimetabolous insects.
Obtect Pupa: pupa in which the appendages are fixed to
the rest of body-butterfly chrysalis.
Occipital Suture: groove running around the posterior of the head in some
insects, it separates the vertex from the occiput.
Occiput: hind most region on the top of the head.
Ocellar Bristles: bristles around or between occelli in certain flies.
Ocellar Triangles: area usually distinct from the rest of the head on
which occelli of diptera are housed.
Ocellus: simple eyes of some insects, usually in groups of three on the
top of the head.
Ommatidium: single unit which together form the compound eye of insects.
Ootheca: egg case produced by cockroaches and some other insects.
Oral Vibrissae: large bristles situated just above the mouth in some
diptera, usually referred to as vibrissae.
Oviparous: egg laying.
Ovipositor: structure used for egg laying, can be either concealed or very
long as in some hymenopterans-Ichneumon wasps.
Palp: leg like structure comprised of varying numbers
of segments arising from the maxilla, major role is food tasting.
Paraglossa: paired lobes on the outer edges of the labium.
Paraproct: one of two lobes found either side of the anus.
Parasite: organism which spends either all or most of its life in
association with another animal from which it acquires food.
Parthenogenesis: reproduction in which eggs develop normally without
fertilization, common in aphids.
Pecten: structure found on the base of the antennae in some
insects-comb-like in structure.
Pectinate: usually applied to antennae- fine branches that arise from a
Pedicel: second antennal segment:
also name given to the tiny waist of ants.
Petiolate: attached by a narrow stalk, some warble fly eggs for example.
Petiole: narrow waist of hymenoptera.
Pictured: used to
describe mottled wings of certain Diptera and other
Pilose: densely covered in setae, antennae of male mosquitoes.
Pleural: concerning the side walls of the body.
Pleural Suture: vertical or diagonal groove on each of the thoracic pleura.
Pleuron: side wall of a thoracic segment.
Plumose: usually applied to antennae-having numerous feathery branches.
Pollen Basket: pollen carrying region on the hind leg of bees-also called
Porrect: extending horizontally forward, usually referring to the antennae.
Posterior: facing or concerning the rear.
basal region of the labium.
Postscutellum: division of the mesonotum, well developed in some flies.
Post-vertical Bristles: bristles found on the head of some flies behind
the occelli, can be divergent, parallel, or crossing.
Pre-apical: arising just before the tip.
Prementum: distal region of the labium from which the labial palps and the
Prepupa: a resting stage seen in some insects before entering the pupal
Proboscis: name given to various mouths that are designed for sucking.
Prognathous: a horizontal head which has the mouth parts at the front.
Proleg: a fleshy stumpy leg seen on some larval insect stages, blackfly
larvae and caterpillars are examples.
Pronotal Comb: row of spines on the hind region of the pronotum of some
Pronotum: the dorsal surface of the
prothorax which in some insects shields the head (Blattodea).
Propodeum: first abdominal segment in the Apocrita insect group, being
fused with the thorax.
Prosternum: ventral surface of the first thoracic segment.
Prothorax: first thoracic segment.
Quadrilateral: cell near the base of a damselfly wing,
shape of this cell is used as a feature to determine damselfly families.
Radial Sector: posterior of the two main branches of
the radius, can have several branches of its own, abbreviated to Rs.
Radius: one of the main longitudinal veins which runs near the front
margin of the wing, abbreviated to R.
Raptorial: adapted to seizing to prey, birds of prey and the preying
Reticulate: to be covered with a network pattern.
Rostrum: beak, usually applied to a piecing mouth of a bug.
Rudimentary: not well developed.
Scape: first antennal segment.
Scarabaeiform: applied to larva, to have a thick body, strong legs on
thorax and well developed head, lamellicorn beetle larvae.
the individual hard plates that form the exoskeleton.
Scopa: can be the brush setae or the pollen basket of bees used to collect
Scopula: small tuft of setae.
Scutellum: the third and major division of the dorsal surface of a
Tarsus: insect foot.
Tegmen: leathery forewing of certain insects, grasshopper for example.
Tegula: lobe which overlies the base of the forewing.
Tergite: primary sclerite forming dorsal surface of any body segment.
Tergum: dorsal surface of any body segment.
Thorax: middle of the three divisions seen in an insects body.
Tibia: leg segment between the femur and the tarsus.
Trachea: minute tube which permeates through the insects body carrying air
to the cells.
Transverse Suture: suture running across the thorax of many flies.
Triangle: triangular region near the base of a dragonfly wing.
Triungulin: active first instar of the oil beetle and some of its
Trochanter: segment of the leg found between the coxa and the femur.
Truncate: to end abruptly, squared off.
Tymbal: sound producing organ of cicada.
Tympanum: auditory membrane in certain insects.
Univoltine: animals which only one generation a year
Unques: the claws at the tip of the feet in Diptera.
Ventral: lower side of the body.
Vertex: top of the head, between the eyes.
Vestigal: poorly developed.
Viviparous: to bear living active young rather than eggs.
Wing pads: the undeveloped wings seen in nymphs, they
appear as two flattened pads on opposing sides of the abdomen.
Workers: name given to a type of caste found in social insects, in
Hymenoptera they are sterile females, in Isoptera they can be male or female,
both of which are sterile.
Xylophagous: wood eating.
Yaw: movement of a body in a lateral plane where the
front region moves in one direction with the hind region moving in the
corresponding opposite direction, occurs in flying and jumping insects.
Zooneuston: animals that are associated with the water
surface e.g. Hemiptera-water measurer.
Zoonosis: disease that can be transmitted to humans from animals.
Zymogenous: organisms that are transient to a particular habitat.